What is the meaning of ཐུག་ནས་ in this sentence:
ཁྱེད་རང་ལ་ཐུག་ནས་དགའ་པོ་བྱུང་སོང ?


ཐུག་ =

་ => from

Grammatically, you’ll notice the ན་ has the same -ས་ as the གི་ did. So it is showing the source of something. Usually you can gloss ནས་ as ‘from’. (Again, it’s good to remember not to get to attached to rigidly translating things).

ཁྱེད་རང་ ལ་ ཐུག་ ནས་ དགའ་པོ་ བྱུང་ སོང་།


Thank you Dirk,
So the entire sentence is kind of “nice to meet you”?

What is “བྱུང་ སོང” ?
I looked it in the dictionary and it says “) wealth/ money/ goods received and spent; 2) have arisen/ been obtained”


Yes! Exactly.

བྱུང་ + སོང་ = the verb + the evidential (helping verb)

བྱུང་ is something like to happen / occur / arise
སོང་ is being used as an evidential here to show you personally witnessed it happen, and it just happened (now)

སོང་ literally means ‘went’ (in some Tibetan languages it is still used that way, but in the diaspora it is usually not literal, but an evidential). it can also be used in other ways (as part of a compound noun, for ex., འགྲོ་སོང་ is costs / expenditures), but don’t worry about those uses for now.

just know that it’s an evidential for the personal / perceptual class of evidential verbs (like འདུག་ is), but འདུག་ is more ‘now’ (it literally means ‘sit’ or ‘stay’, so ‘is here’), and སོང་ is more ‘past’ (but very recent / just gone / went)

1 Like

EXAMPLES. of སོང་, showing actions that just happened (from real Tibetan kid’s speech):

  • ཨ་ནི་ ཨ་ཕ་གིས་ ང་ ལ་ ice cream་ ཉོས་ སོང་།
    And dad bought me an ice cream

  • ཁྱི་ དེ་ སླེབས་ སོང་། སོ་ བརྒྱབ་ སོང་། ལག་པ་ ལ་ སོ་ བརྒྱབ་ སོང་།
    That dog came… It bit (him). It bit him on the hand…

The thing just happened, and you saw it happen

EX. of འདུག་ showing things that are there, or actions that are happening:

  • འབུ་གྲོག་མ་ ཆུང་ཆུང་ གཅིག་ འདུག
    There’s a little ant (there)…

  • ད་ སོ་ བཀྲུ་གི་ འདུག
    Now (he’s) brushing (his) teeth…

The thing is happening, or is there, and you see it there