Particle གི after verbs

What is the purpose of the particle གི (ཡི གྱི ཀྱི) after verbs? Ex:



It helps mark the tense of the verb (similar to how English has -ing or -ed, etc).

ནང་མི་ཚོས་ ལྟད་མོ་ ལྟ་[གི]་ (འདུག)
“The family (is) watch[ing] the show.”

Thank you.

A similar doubt:


If it is written right it means “I am talking to his mother on the telephone”

How could I say “I am talking to MY mother on the telephone”?

Or “He is talking to HIS mother on the telephone”

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(ངས་) ཁོང་གི་ ཨ་མ་ལགས་ (ལ་) ཁ་པར་ བཏང་གི་ ཡོད
“I am calling his mother” (ཡོད་ b/c I am doing it, not just witnessing it).

  • You may drop the ངས་ b/c ཡོད་ makes this clear.
  • གཏོང་ is considered “grammatically correct”, but བཏང་ is commonly used in all tenses (for more, see here, scroll to “The Leveled Verb Form”)


(ངས་) (ངའི་) ཨ་མ་ལགས་ (ལ་) ཁ་པར་ བཏང་གི་ ཡོད
(ཁོང་གིས་) (ཁོང་གི་) ཨ་མ་ ལ་ ཁ་པར་ བཏང་གི་ འདུག
If he is doing it, and you are there seeing him do it, it is འདུག (again, in everyday speech, you will probably drop some of the unneeded words, or use as needed for emphasis).

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