ཡོད་ འདུག་ and ཡོད་རེད་

  • ཡོད་ འདུག and ཡོད་རེད་ all follow the structure : [component of location] [object] [verb]

  • ཡོད་ and འདུག་ both bring the meaning of direct experience from the speaker.

  • ཡོད་རེད་ brings the meaning of “generally speaking”

  • The difference between ཡོད་ and འདུག་ is that:

    • ཡོད་ is turned inwards, towards the speaker and because of that, can only means “to have”.
    • འདུག་ is turned outwards from the speaker.
      • If the component of location contains a living being, it will mean “someone has something”
      • On the other hand, if it contains something inanimate, it will mean “these is something somewhere”
  • ཡོད་རེད་ means:

    • “Someone has something” if the component of location contains a living being
    • And it means “there is something somewhere” if it contains something inanimate.
  • In case the component of location is missing:

    • ཡོད་ continues to only mean “someone has something” and necessarily implies that the speaker is found inside the omitted component of location
    • For འདུག་ and ཡོད་རེད་, first, the context of what has been said before and the physical context need to be checked for clues. Otherwise, the meaning defaults to “there is something somewhere”.
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